The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 1. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investing in the stock market has traditionally offered bigger returns than other types of investments. Along with the opportunity for higher returns comes a higher amount of risk. Stocks can be exposed to both market risk and business or financial risk. Market risk may be evident when the overall market takes a nose dive. Investors may hold stock of a company that has been performing great, but due to poor market conditions, the stock decreases in value. Investors may look to offset this risk by investing in other vehicles that don’t tend to move together. The business risk with stocks involves factors that may cause a company to perform poorly. This may include bad management, heightened competition, and declining company profits. Investors may try to limit this risk by creating a diversified portfolio including stocks from different sectors.

**Current Ratio**

The Current Ratio of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 3.3. The Current Ratio is used by investors to determine whether a company can pay short term and long term debts. The current ratio looks at all the liquid and non-liquid assets compared to the company’s total current liabilities. A high current ratio indicates that the company might have trouble managing their working capital. A low current ratio (when the current liabilities are higher than the current assets) indicates that the company may have trouble paying their short term obligations.

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is -13.538999. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 0.376575. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is -3.696079.

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 3. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

**MF Rank**

The MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 19873. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

The Q.i. Value of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 50. The Q.i. Value is a helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

Turning to Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth), this is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 0.805266. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends. The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow.

**Value Composite**

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 68. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company.

The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 77.

**Volatility**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 110.1496. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.

The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 144.8529. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 145.0584.

**ERP5 Rank**

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTCPK:ANTH) is 15104. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

Investors often hear the saying “buy low, sell high”. This may seem highly obvious to anybody looking to get into the stock market. Even though investors typically know they should do this, novices tend to do just the opposite, buy high and sell low. Often times, amateur investors will get carried away when a stock is trending higher. They may attempt to get in on the stock after a big move with hopes of the stock going higher and an overall thought that relates to the fear of missing out. Often times, investors will find themselves in a precarious situation when this occurs. They might have taken a chance on a stock that maybe was too good to be true. Investors may regret buying after the big move when the price has far exceeded the underlying value. Closely watching the fundamentals may help investors avoid getting into sticky situations such as buying too high.

At the time of writing, Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) has a Piotroski F-Score of 2. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Investors may be searching high and low for the next breakout winner in the stock market. As companies continue to release quarterly earnings reports, investors will be looking for stocks that have the potential to move to the upside in the coming months. Tracking earnings can be a good way for investors to see how the company is stacking up to analyst estimates. Some investors prefer to track sell-side estimates very closely. Others prefer to do their own research and make their own best guesses on what the actual numbers will be. A solid earnings beat may help ease investor worries if the stock has been underperforming recently. On the flip side, a bad earnings miss may cause investors to take a much closer look at what the future prospects look like for the company.

**Return on Invested Capital (ROIC), ROIC Quality, ROIC 5 Year Average**

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is -0.099185. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is -0.514744. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is -0.161297.

**Leverage Ratio**

The Leverage Ratio of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 0.528331. Leverage ratio is the total debt of a company divided by total assets of the current and past year divided by two. Companies take on debt to finance their day to day operations. The leverage ratio can measure how much of a company’s capital comes from debt. With this ratio, investors can better estimate how well a company will be able to pay their long and short term financial obligations.

**Return on Assets**

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is -0.148295. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

Turning to Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth), this is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is -3.607671. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends.

The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow.

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 71.8904. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.

The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 102.4388. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 86.599.

**ERP5 Rank**

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 12205. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

**MF Rank**

The MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 14651. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

Investors have various approaches they can take when deciding what stocks to stuff the portfolio with. Some investors may choose to use fundamental analysis, and some may choose to use technical analysis. Others may employ a combination of the two approaches to make sure no stone is left unturned. Investors looking for bargains in the market may be on the lookout for the stock that offers the best value. This may involve finding stocks that have fallen out of favor with the overall investing community but still have low PE ratios and higher dividend yields. Whatever approach is used, investors may benefit greatly from making sure that all the homework is done, and all of the angles have been examined properly.

The Q.i. Value of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 50. The Q.i. Value is a helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 71. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Paringa Resources Limited (ASX:PNL) is 72.

Investors may be employing many various trading strategies when approaching the markets. Investors may be hoping for sustained upward trends where stocks calmly and steadily advance in that direction. Of course, this isn’t typically the case. Having some foreign exposure in the portfolio may provide overall diversification and also potentially boost performance over time. Investing globally may entail considering the risks of investing in economies that are inherently less developed and thus less liquid. A diversified approach may target foreign markets that have solid growth potential and favorable domestic conditions, such as a stable political setting. Investing globally may require much more research and dedication in order to fully understand the ins and outs.